Protoporphyrin - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Protoporphyrin IX in particular is a widely used carrier molecule in nature for divalent cations, complexing with Fe 2 + to form haem, Mg 2 + forming the chlorophylls and Zn 2 + creating Zn-protoporphyrin. Iron complexes of porphyrins are important biochemically as they form the prosthetic groups of the various haemoproteins The protoporphyrin test is used to diagnose blood problems caused by lead. The test can show lead exposure or lead poisoning. Lead poisoning is extremely dangerous because lead can damage organs throughout the body protoporphyrin A porphyrin occurring in the course of the synthesis of HAEMOGLOBIN . Excess of this porphyrin, protoporphyria, causes intense itching, swelling and redness of the skin on exposure to sunlight and leads to a strikingly weatherbeaten appearance Protoporphyrin. Protoporphyrin is formed within red blood cells in the bone marrow and then enters the blood plasma, which carries it to the skin, where it can be photoactivated by sunlight and cause damage (https://rarediseases.org). From: Self-Assessment Questions for Clinical Molecular Genetics, 2019. Related terms: Photodynamic Therap

Protoporphyrin IX belongs to the porphyrin family, which are a class of tetrapyrroles. It is the iron-free form of hemin and amphiphilic in nature. It is the precursor of heme in its biosynthetic pathway. Protoporphyrin IX imparts red color to heme and is the major porphyrin in blood pro·to·por·phy·rin. (prō′tō-pôr′fə-rĭn) n. A metal-free porphyrin, C 34 H 34 N 4 O 4, that combines with ferrous iron to form the heme group in hemoglobin and myoglobin, and with ferric iron to form the hemin group in catalase and some cytochromes. American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition As nouns the difference between porphyrin and protoporphyrin is that porphyrin is (organic chemistry) any of a class of heterocyclic compounds containing four pyrrole rings arranged in a square; they are important in biochemistry in a form with a metal atom in the central cavity (hemoglobin with iron, chlorophyll with magnesium, etc) while protoporphyrin is (biochemistry) any porphyrin that lacks a central metal ion بروتوبورفيرين 9. البروتوبرفيرين 9 هو مركب عضوي من أكثر البورفيرنيات شيوعا في الطبيعة، له لون غامق ولا ينحل بالماء. يوجد البروتوبرفيرين الحر في الطبيعة بشكل معقدات مع الحديد، وعندما يشكل. Protoporphyria is an autosomal dominant disorder in which increased amounts of protoporphyrin are secreted and excreted; the disorder is thought to be the result of an enzyme deficiency. Protoporphyria causes photosensitivity and may lead to cirrhosis of the liver and cholelithiasis as a result of protoporphyrin deposits

Protoporphyrin (Blood) - Health Encyclopedia - University

Protoporphyrin is a cyclic tetrapyrrole that consists of porphyrin bearing four methyl substituents at positions 3, 8, 13 and 17, two vinyl substituents at positions 7 and 12 and two 2-carboxyethyl substituents at positions 2 and 18. The parent of the class of protoporphyrins The protein encoded by this gene is localized to the mitochondrion, where it catalyzes the insertion of the ferrous form of iron into protoporphyrin IX in the heme synthesis pathway. Mutations in this gene are associated with erythropoietic protoporphyria. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene

Protoporphyrin disodium | C34H32N4Na2O4 | CID 71484 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more Protoporphyrin may increase the photosensitizing activities of Porfimer sodium. Tretinoin. The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with Protoporphyrin. Verteporfin. Protoporphyrin may increase the photosensitizing activities of Verteporfin. Improve patient outcomes

Protoporphyrin definition is - a purple porphyrin acid C34H34N4O4 obtained from hemin or heme by removal of bound iron Zinc protoporphyrin is a compound found in red blood cells when heme production is inhibited by lead and/or by lack of iron. Instead of incorporating a ferrous ion, to form heme, protoporphyrin IX, the immediate precursor of heme, incorporates a zinc ion, forming ZPP. The reaction to insert a ferrous ion into protoporphyrin IX is catalyzed by the enzyme ferrochelatase Protoporphyrin IX is an activator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), but its role as an endogenous regulator of vascular function through cGMP has not been previously reported. In this study we examined whether the heme precursor delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) could regulate vascular force through promoting protoporphyrin IX-elicited activation of sGC

Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) is normally present in small amounts in red blood cells but may be elevated in certain conditions. The ZPP test is used to screen for and monitor chronic lead exposure adults and to detect iron deficiency in children The protoporphyrin builds up in the bone marrow, the blood cells, and the liver. Diagnosis Symptoms related to sunlight exposure typically appear in childhood—even in infancy—but it may take time to get diagnosed with EPP

Protoporphyrin definition of protoporphyrin by Medical

Die Substanz wird im Organismus als Carrier -Molekül für zweiwertige Kationen verwendet. Zusammen mit Fe 2+ bildet Protoporphyrin IX die Häm -Gruppe von Hämoglobin, Myoglobin und anderen Häm-haltigen Enzymen wie Cytochrom c und Katalase. Bei Pflanzen ist es zusammen mit Mg 2+ der Hauptbestandteil des Chlorophylls プロトポルフィリン (protoporphyrin) は、 ポルフィン 環に、4つの メチル基 、2つの ビニル基 、2つの プロピオン酸 基が結合した構造をもつ ポルフィリン の総称である。. 特に断らない場合、 ヘム や クロロフィル の前駆体となる プロトポルフィリンIX を指す。. また、ポルフィリン類の分類に使われるローマ数字は、Appendix 3 Fischer Trivial Names(脚注参照)によって. Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is a heterocyclic organic compound, which consists of four pyrrole rings, and is the final intermediate in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Its tetrapyrrole structure enables it to chelate transition metals to form metalloporphyrins, which perform a variety of biologic functions

METHODS To overcome the shallow tissue penetration of blue light, which maximally excites the ALA-induced fluorophore protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) but is also strongly absorbed by hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin, a system was developed to illuminate the surgical field with red light (620-640 nm) matching a secondary, smaller absorption peak of PpIX and detecting the fluorescence emission through a 650-nm longpass filter Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is a heterocyclic organic compound, which consists of four pyrrole rings, and is the final intermediate in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Size. Price. Stock. Quantity. 5mg. USD 97. In stock Protoporphyrin is excreted by the liver into the bile, after which it enters the intestine and is excreted in the feces. It is not soluble in water so is not excreted in the urine. The major symptom of this disorder is hypersensitivity of the skin to sunlight and some types of artificial light, such as fluorescent lights (photosensitivity) Protoporphyrin-9 is the key porphyrin in animal and plant cells, presenting a precursor scaffold for heme sites and other metal domains contained in metalloproteins. Iron is introduced to the porphyrin to generate heme, the primary oxygen-binding moiety found in proteins. Protoporphyrin-9 as heme is incorporated into hemoglobin, catalase. protoporphyrin. ChEBI ID. CHEBI:15430. Definition. A cyclic tetrapyrrole that consists of porphyrin bearing four methyl substituents at positions 3, 8, 13 and 17, two vinyl substituents at positions 7 and 12 and two 2-carboxyethyl substituents at positions 2 and 18. The parent of the class of protoporphyrins. Stars

Erythropoietic protoporphyria in a boy | Archives of

Protoporphyrin definition: a type of porphyrin that, when combined with an iron atom, forms haem , the... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and example Protoporphyrin IX, in the metabolism of porphyrin, is created by the enzyme protoporphyrinogen oxidase. MedChem Express http://www.medchemexpress.com/Chlorhexidine.html, HY-B1247: protoporphyrin IX[in] + 6 H+[in] + 6 e-[membrane] -> protoporphyrinogen IX[in] PlantCyc PROTOPORPHYRIN_I If the total erythrocyte porphyrin value is 80 mcg/dL or above, the protoporphyrin fractionation assay will automatically be performed at an additional charge. The fractionation test results include noncomplexed (free) protoporphyrin and zinc-complexed protoporphyrin. The following algorithms are available in Special Instructions Protoporphyrin definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now Protoporphyrin is produced by oxidation of the methylene bridge of protoporphyrinogen. Protoporphyrin IX is the only naturally occurring isomer; it is an intermediate in heme biosynthesis, combining with ferrous iron to form protoheme IX, the heme prosthetic group of hemoglobin. Protoporphyrin IX is created by the enzyme protoporphyrinogen oxidase

Protoporphyrin Hepatopathy EFFECTS OF CHOLIC ACID INGESTION IN MURINE GRISEOFULVIN-INDUCED PROTOPORPHYRIA MAUREEN B. POH-FITZPATRICK, JEFFREY A. SKLAR, and CARY GOLDSMAN, Department ofDermatology, Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons, NewYork 10032 JAY H. LEFKOWITCH, Department ofPathology, Columbia University College of Physicians &Surgeons, NewYork 1003 Protoporphyrin level: 16 to 60 mcg/dL (0.28 to 1.07 µmol/L) Uroporphyrin level: <2 mcg/dL (<2.4 nmol/L) Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results Mea The total synthesis of protoporphyrin IX and its disodium salt using a new alternative method to the classical MacDonald condensation is reported. The key step is the reaction of the new unsymmetrical diiodo dipyrrylmethane 1 with the known dipyrrylmethane 2. Coupling of the two fragments leads directly to porphyrin 3 without the need of an oxidizing agent. The new methodology is well suited. Protoporphyrin - 헤모글로빈, 엽록소 Protoporphyrin 개요 - Protoporphyrin 분해경로 - Glutamic acid로 부터 합성 - 유기색소의 원리 - porphyrin : heme, Fe함유 단백질 - 엽록소 : 광합성 -- 에너지흡수 - 헤모글로빈 : 산소운반 -- 에너지 생산 prophyrin : 그리스어 purple의미, tetra-pyrrole.

Protoporphyrin IX ≥95% 553-12-

  1. Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is the porphyrin scaffold of heme b, a ubiquitous prosthetic group of proteins responsible for oxygen binding (hemoglobin, myoglobin), electron transfer (cytochrome c) and catalysis (cytochrome P450, catalases, peroxidases). PPIX and its metallated derivatives frequently find application as therapeutic agents, imaging.
  2. The fluorescence signal in the red channel is mostly from Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) (emission > 630 nm), while the Porphyrin mainly produced by P. acnes bacteria is Coproporphyrin III (CpIII) with greenish-orange (570-630 nm) fluorescence [7, 8, 10, 14, 17, 20, 23]
  3. While HO-2 is constitutively expressed, HO-1 can be induced by its heme substrate as well as by heavy metals, oxidizing agents, and other environmental stresses. 1,2,3 Tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPPIX) is a synthetic heme analog that selectively inhibits HO-1 (K i = 11 nM) over HO-2 (IC 50 = 7.5 µM). 4,5 It also weakly inhibits endothelial nitric.

Protoporphyrin - definition of protoporphyrin by The Free

  1. Strukturformel von Protoporphyrin IX. Porphyrine (nach altgriechisch πορφυρά porphyrá, dem Purpurfarbstoff) sind organisch-chemische Farbstoffe, die aus vier Pyrrol -Ringen ( Tetrapyrrol) bestehen, die durch vier Methingruppen zyklisch miteinander verbunden sind. Der einfachste Vertreter ist Porphin
  2. ed by a portable hematofluorometer: a screening device for lead poisoning. J Lab Clin Med. 89:712-723. Bowers, M.A., Aicher, L.D., Davis, H.A., and Woods, J.S. 1992. Quantitative deter
  3. (HSA) and basic proteinoid have been studied in parallel with their photochemical activity. The most significant change in the absorption spectrum of PP IX was the appearance of a new maximum at.
  4. NEZPP : The porphyrins are intermediaries in the heme synthesis pathway. When iron is not available for heme synthesis (eg, iron deficiency), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) accumulates within RBCs. Lead inhibits several enzymes in the heme synthesis pathway and causes increased levels of RBC ZPP. ZPP is a biological marker of lead toxicity and was previously used, in conjunction with blood lead.
  5. Free Protoporphyrin. µmol/L Erc. Adult: 0.40 - 1.00. Porphyrin reference values are not available for individuals 17 y and younger. µg/dL x 0.178. Test Location. ON, CA. Test Version. 30-Sep-2019
  6. al pain, gallstones, and enlargement of the spleen. Inheritance is autosomal recessive

Leberbeteiligung: Protoporphyrin ist nicht in Wasser löslich und kann daher nicht mit dem Urin aus dem Körper entfernt werden. In der Leber wird das Protoporphyrin in eine transportierbare Form umgewandelt und dann mit dem Stuhl ausgeschieden Selected citations for Tin protoporphyrin IX dichloride include: Data on characterization of metalloporphyrin-mediated HO-1 and DAF induction in rat glomeruli and podocytes. Astaxanthin protects against MPP (+)-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells via the HO-1/NOX2 axis The protoporphyrin normally found in erythrocytes is complexed with zinc (Zn) as Zn protoporphyrin. Zn protoporphyrin increases in many conditions other than Porphyrias, including iron deficiency, lead poisoning and almost any type of disorder that affects erythrocytes. Therefore, increases in erythrocyte porphyrins are not specific for Porphyrias References for Zinc protoporphyrin IX. References are publications that support the biological activity of the product. Brune and Ullrich (1987) Inhibition of platelet aggregation by carbon monoxide is mediated by activation of guanylate cyclase. Mol.Pharmacol

Zn Protoporphyrin IX. Zn (II) Protoporphyrin IX is an inhibitor of heme oxygenase (the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of heme to biliverdin in the heme degradation pathway) and guanylyl cyclase. Heme oxygenase has been implicated in tumor cell resistance to chemotherapy, reduction of free radical formation and inflammation, and associated. Tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), a heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) inhibitor, triggers adaptive tissue responses that confer potent protection against acute renal- and extra-renal tissue injuries. This effect is mediated, in part, via SnPP-induced activation of the cytoprotective Nrf2 pathway Protoporphyrin IX purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2015 Jul;27(7):568-73. To determine whether the inhibition of caveolin-1 tyrosine residues 14 ( Cav-1-Y14 ) phosphorylation with protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors ( PP2 ) will upregulate heme oxygenase-1 ( HO-1 ) activity to protect against ventilation induced lung injury in vivo of an animal model El análisis de protoporfirina no mide los niveles de plomo en la sangre. En cambio, mide cómo ha sido afectada la sangre por el plomo. El plomo puede afectar la capacidad de la sangre para crear nuevas células sanguíneas. El análisis de protoporfirina mide los efectos de la exposición al plomo que han ocurrido durante los últimos dos a.

Medicle Organisation - Porphyrien

Porphyrin vs Protoporphyrin - What's the difference

  1. Fluorescence imaging in vivo will pave an important way for the evaluation of biomaterials. The major advantage of fluorescence imaging compared to other imaging modalities is the possibility of tracking two or more fluorescence probes simultaneously with multispectral fluorescence imaging. It is essential to elucidate the location, erosion, drug release and resection of implanted biomaterials.
  2. Erythrocyte total protoporphyrin - if elevated measure metal-free and zinc-protoporphyrin in the same sample *Obtain sample when symptoms are present, if possible. Acute porphyrias. An acute porphyria should be suspected if a patient presents with neurovisceral signs and symptoms and an initial evaluation excludes more common causes. The most.
  3. The essential biochemical abnormality in EPP is overproduction of protoporphyrin, as recognized in the original description by Magnus et al. (1961).The normal level of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP), of up to about 60 microg/dl red cells, may be increased in manifest cases to over 1,000 microg/dl
  4. Covering: 1989 to 2002. Previous review: Nat. Prod. Rep., 1989, 6, 171 A review of the biosynthesis of chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls from protoporphyrin IX with 235 references. The literature on the enzymes magnesium chelatase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine:magnesium protoporphyrin IX O-methyl
  5. Zinc Protoporphyrin (Zn(II)-protoporphyrin IX) is an orally active and competitive heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor and markedly attenuates the protective effects of Phloroglucinol (PG) against H2O2. Zinc Protoporphyrin is used as a screening marker of iron deficiency in individual pregnant women and children, but also to assess population iron status in combination with haemoglobin.

بروتوبورفيرين 9 - ويكيبيدي

This is a Phase 1b, single-center, dose-escalating study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacodynamic effect of Stannous Protoporphyrin in healthy volunteers and in subjects with stage 3-4 CKD Magnesium-protoporphyrin O-methyltransferase (EC: Alternative name(s): Magnesium-protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase Gene names i: Name:chlM. Ordered Locus Names: slr0525. Organism i: Synechocystis sp. (strain PCC 6803 / Kazusa) Taxonomic identifier i: 1111708.

Free Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin definition of Free

Protoporphyrin IX C34H34N4O4 - PubChe

  1. Fluorescence imaging provides a non-invasive tool for locating, monitoring and tracking implanted biomaterials in situ.Since alginate hydrogels have been widely applied as scaffolds for tissue engineering, delivery carriers or extracellular matrices, the in vivo status of alginate hydrogels is necessary and important to their applications. Herein, a protoporphyrin incorporated alginate.
  2. Human ferrochelatase is a homodimeric, inner mitochondrial membrane-associated enzyme that possesses an essential [2Fe-2S] cluster. In this work, we report the crystal structure of human ferrochelatase with the substrate protoporphyrin IX bound as well as a higher resolution structure of the R115L variant without bound substrate
  3. The electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide and water into useful products is a major challenge in facilitating a closed carbon cycle. Here we report a cobalt protoporphyrin immobilized on a.

Protoporphyrin Sigma-Aldric

Protoporphyrin disodium C34H32N4Na2O4 - PubChe

  1. Elevated protoporphyrin (as in erythropoietic protoporphyria) and zinc coproporphyrin (usually associated with childbirth) can increase the apparent EP signal. A more specific test for free protoporphyrin is Porphyrins, Serum Total (0080429). Specimens which are hemolyzed, clotted, or improperly aliquoted may show false elevations
  2. Protoporphyrin IX photobleaching of subcellular distributed sites of leukemic HL60 cells based on ALA-PDT in vitro () Kangqiang Huang , Li Chen , Shunfeng Lv , Jianwen Xiong Department of Physics & Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, China
  3. Zinc Protoporphyrin (ZPP) - Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) accumulates in erythrocytes as a result of chronic lead absorption or iron deficiency anemia. Test Resources. None found for this test Please visit our Clinical Education Center to stay informed on any future publications, webinars, or other education opportunities

Protoporphyrin IX {i.e., bis(α-methyl-β-pentylethylether)protoporphyrin IX, and bis(α-methyl-β-dodecanylethylether)protoporphyrin IX} bearing polyhedral borane anions (B 12 H 11 SH 2−, B 12 H 11 NH 3 −, or B 12 H 11 OH 2−) were synthesized with reasonable yields. Modification of the protoporphyrin IX structure was achieved by. Porphyrin tests measure the level of porphyrins in your blood, urine, or stool. Porphyrins are chemicals that help make hemoglobin, a type of protein in your red blood cells. Hemoglobin carries oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body. It's normal to have a small amount of porphyrins in your blood and other body fluids

Protoporphyrin ix definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now Tin protoporphyrin activates the oxidant-dependent NRF2-cytoprotective pathway and mitigates acute kidney injury. Tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), a heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitor, can paradoxically protect against diverse forms of. Read Article. Executive Order on Advancing American Kidney Health. The administration is dedicated to advancing kidney. (3) Protoporphyrin bound to albumin has a fluorescence emission peak at around 636 nm whereas protoporphyrin bound to globin (if there is haemolysis in the sample) has a peak at around 628 nm. (4) Total erythrocyte porphyrin greater than 4 µmol/L erythrocytes with Zn-protoporphyrin 20 to 60% of total protoporphyrin Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-Coated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle (SPION) Nanoclusters for Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy. Lesan Yan, Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104 USA. Search for more papers by this author

Protoporphyrin: Uses, Interactions, Mechanism of Action

General Discussion. Summary. Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme ferrochelatase (FECH), which results from changes (mutations) in the FECH gene. Due to abnormally low levels of this enzyme, excessive amounts of protoporphyrin accumulate in the bone marrow, blood plasma, and red blood cells Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) has been used to screen and manage iron deficiency in individual children, but it has also been recommended to assess population iron status. The diagnostic utility of ZPP used in combination with haemoglobin concentration has not been evaluated in pre-school children. We aimed to a) identify factors associated with ZPP in children aged 12-36 months; b) assess the.

La Protoporphyrine zinc (ZPP) est un composé trouvé dans le sang, et plus précisément dans les globules rouges quand la production de l'hème est inhibée par une intoxication par le plomb et/ou une carence en fer [2].Elle joue un rôle important en science alimentaire en matière de pigmentation des viandes transformée Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a well-characterised endogenous porphyrin photosensitizer, normally present in minor concentrations within cells as part of the heme biosynthesis pathway. Dormant cancer cells have been proven to accumulate high concentrations of PpIX and are more susceptible to PDT [ 11 ] protoporphyrin ( plural protoporphyrins ) ( biochemistry) Any porphyrin that lacks a central metal ion Preparing Stock Solutions for Tin protoporphyrin IX dichloride. The following data is based on the product molecular weight 750.25.Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions Zinc protoporphyrin level in blood determined by a portable hematofluorometer: a screening device for lead poisoning. Journal of Laboratory & Clinical Medicine 89:712-723. Bowers, M.A., Aicher, L.D., Davis, H.A., and Woods, J.S. 1992. Quantitative determination of porphyrins in rat and human urine and evaluation of urinary porphyrin profiles.

Protoporphyrin Definition of Protoporphyrin by Merriam

Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Testing, 1st Edition. View Sample Pages. This document contains recommendations for the measurement, reporting, and interpretation of erythrocyte protoporphyrin using hematofluorometric and extraction measurement methods. This document is available in electronic format only This study aimed to examine the association between protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and components of sarcopenia. The present study enrolled 1172 participants without anemia between 1999 to 2002 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database. We employed the multivariable-logistic regression model to examine the. Heme is a porphyrin ring complexed with ferrous iron and protoporphyrin IX. Heme is an essential prosthetic group in proteins that is necessary as a subcellular compartment to perform diverse biological functions like hemoglobin and myoglobin.[1] Other enzymes which use heme as a prosthetic group includes cytochromes of the electron transport chain, catalase, and nitric oxide synthase

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Heme is a porphyrin nucleus which has a tetrapyrrole ring. In the structure of heme. It contains 4 pyrrole nucleus is connected by methylene bridges. It is a planner molecule. The ring contains Vinyl groups (-CH=CH2), Methyl group (-CH3), Propionic acid groups (-CH2-CH2-COOH). The biosynthesis of heme mainly takes place partly in Mitochondria. Ontology: Protoporphyrins (C0033733) Definition (NCI) A tetrapyrrole containing 4 methyl, 2 propionic and 2 vinyl side chains that is a metabolic precursor for hemes, cytochrome c and chlorophyll. Protoporphyrin IX is produced by oxidation of the methylene bridge of protoporphyrinogen by the enzyme protoporphyrinogen oxidase The protoporphyrin dependent pathway uses protoporphyrin IX as a frame for heme, but the recently discovered coproporphyrin dependent pathway utilizes a coproporphyrin III chassis for heme . A few biological production methods of biliverdin using E. coli have been suggested, but the yield was low despite the constant addition of nitrogen. Protoporphyrin IX [Wiki] 1379795-89-7 [RN] 3-[18-(2-carboxyeth yl)-3,7,12,17-tetra methyl-8,13-divinyl -22,23-dihydroporph in-2-yl]propionic a ci Christin Anne Albus, Annabel Salinas, Olaf Czarnecki, Sabine Kahlau, Maxi Rothbart, Wolfram Thiele, Wolfgang Lein, Ralph Bock, Bernhard Grimm, Mark Aurel Schöttler, LCAA, a Novel Factor Required for Magnesium Protoporphyrin Monomethylester Cyclase Accumulation and Feedback Control of Aminolevulinic Acid Biosynthesis in Tobacco , Plant Physiology, Volume 160, Issue 4, December 2012, Pages 1923.

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