Dental plaque Causes

Most people develop some dental plaque, however, only some people develop gum disease. It is thought that infection is more likely to develop if defense against bacteria is reduced in some way, such as an excessive intake of sugar or lack of hygiene. What Causes Plaque and Why Is It Harmful Without regular cleanings, plaque may harden into tartar, or it may cause cavities, tooth decay, and gum disease. Inflammation in your mouth can lead to other health problems, so it's a good idea.. If you are a heavy smoker then this can be a cause for the plaque! If plaque goes untreated, it may develop into tartar. Symptoms for Dental Plaque. Your teeth may feel fuzzy ; Bleeding and receding gums; Very bad breath (Halitosis) Red, swollen, softer gums that bleed when you brush or floss; Plaque Remova What Causes Dental Plaque and Tartar? When saliva, food, and fluids combine in your mouth they produce an environment that allows the bacteria to grow and deposit which collect on teeth and gums and especially where the teeth and gums meet Brushing and flossing alone won't get rid of tartar, so you'll need to see your dental professional to remove tartar buildup. Gingivitis and periodontitis: Plaque can also cause your gums to inflame, leading to gingivitis or periodontal disease. How to Remove and Prevent Plaque on Teeth | Colgate

What are the Causes of Plaque? Dental

Dental Plaque : What it Is, What Causes It, and How to Get

  1. If you don't, dental plaque can eventually wear down your tooth enamel and cause cavities, or turn into dental calculus or dental tartar and cause gingivitis. Other ways to prevent dental plaque: Use an interdental cleaner to clean between teeth Eat a balanced diet and limit snackin
  2. Dental plaque is a clear sticky film that coats your teeth. It's due to eating a lot of sugars and starches and not cleaning your teeth well. When sugars and starches aren't cleaned off your teeth, bacteria quickly begin feeding on them and form plaque. Plaque that stays on your teeth can harden under or above your gum line into tartar (calculus)
  3. Dental Scaling: your dental hygienist will use two tools, a dental scaler and a curette to remove plaque and tartar from the teeth and below the gum line. They may also choose to reveal the plaque with a red-staining tablet or with an ultraviolet plaque light, otherwise, they will simply use touch to identify the rough spots
  4. utes after we eat, food particles, bacteria, sugars, acids, and saliva combine to create a soft, sticky film on the teeth. This is a plaque. Plaque contains millions of bacteria, which, if allowed to thrive without check, cause tooth decay and gum disease

What is dental plaque? It is. it's that thin, sticky film of bacteria which forms on the teeth when bacteria in the mouth mix with sugary foods or starch. When we clean our mouth, when we brush and / or floss, we get rid of plaque. Unsupervised plaque can lead to cavities, gingivitis (gum disease) and tooth loss In this video I talk about what causes dental plaque and what dental plaque is made of. How to Brush your teeth video https://youtu.be/8vdWZGlcYncHow to fl.. Plaque is the thin film of bacteria that forms after one has eaten food, especially sugary food If plaque is left uncleansed, it can start developing into tartar that eats into the tooth's enamel Plaque contains bacteria that secretes acid while it tries to use the food you ate and this acid can harm your tooth's enamel Everyone has dental plaque Plaque is the root cause of many oral health issues. The bacteria in plaque produce acids that attack tooth enamel causing cavities. The bacteria in plaque can also cause the early stage of gum disease called gingivitis. Plaque can also contribute to bad breath and can make your teeth look dingy and yellow

Andrew Joiner, in Handbook for Cleaning/Decontamination of Surfaces, 2007. 3.3. Dental Plaque. Dental plaque is a colourless or whitish substance that builds up on teeth and gums, particularly at the gum margin (Figure C.4.2).It is a biofilm made up of billions of bacteria, the majority of which are only found in the oral cavity [41].These grow in a mass of soluble and insoluble carbohydrates. Dental Plaque: Causes & Prevention with Listerine Mouthwash Dental plaque is a thin white or yellowish coating, made up of food particles and germs, that form on your teeth after each meal. The germs naturally present in the mouth break down sugars into acids, and the acid then combines with old food particles and saliva to form plaque Dental plaque is the sticky substance that forms on teeth from bacterial buildup. This sticky plaque biofilm coats your teeth, develops under your gum line, and sticks to fillings and other dental work. Plaque is full of bacteria that can damage tooth enamel and result in cavities Symptoms, Causes, Treatment and Prevention. Our teeth are covered with a sticky, colourless film of bacteria known as plaque. It can be blamed for causing cavities and gum disease. A plaque which is not removed daily with the help of brushing and flossing between the teeth can harden into tartar. Tartar is also known as dental calculus, which. Dental Plaque — Causes, Consequences, Detection, And Treatment Dental Plaque - A Brief Analysis. Tooth brushing is a daily activity carried out unconsciously in the mornings. It is an essential activity that keeps our teeth in excellent condition. Tiny particles of food that remain in gaps of our teeth and on gums cause cavities and infections

Dental plaque is an archetypical biofilm composed of a complex microbial community. It is the aetiological agent for major dental diseases such as dental caries and periodontal disease. The clinical picture of these dental diseases is a net result of the cross-talk between the pathogenic dental plaque biofilm and the host tissue response Dental plaque refers to the deposition of a soft and sticky substance around and between the teeth. It is one of the most common causes of tooth decay and gum diseases. Since this substance is white in colour, it may be hard to detect at first Dental caries (tooth decay) Dental caries result when plaque forms on the surface of a tooth and converts the free sugars (all sugars added to foods by the manufacturer, cook, or consumer, plus sugars naturally present in honey, syrups, and fruit juices) contained in foods and drinks into acids that destroy the tooth over time Dental plaque9- 12 Dental plaque is a thin, tenacious microbial film that forms on the tooth surfaces. Microorganisms in the dental plaque ferment carbohydrate foodstuffs, especially the disaccharide sucrose, to produce acids that cause demineralization of inorganic substances and furnish various proteolytic enzymes to cause disintegration of.

Dental Plaque: Causes, Prevention, and Treatment Options 7/4/2019. Dental plaque is a sticky, colorless to pale yellow buildup of biofilm on the teeth and is formed by bacteria living in the mouth. It is visible when teeth are not brushed and feels fuzzy to the tongue. Read on to learn about the causes, prevention, and treatment of dental plaque Dental plaque is referred to colorless, sticky, or pale yellow film which starts forming on the teeth. When fluids, food, and saliva combine plaque which has bacteria and these forms between the teeth and around the gun line. In this topic, we are going to tell about dental plaque and the reasons behind it Tooth Plaque Causes, Prevention, and Treatment. Maintaining oral hygiene is important to stay away from several painful conditions. One of these is the development of plaque. Tooth plaque is a problem that a lot of people struggle with. While it is completely okay to get it, it can cause major harm to your teeth if not treated well in time Dental Plaque Causes Symptoms And Prevention. September 24, 2018. Dental plaque can be defined as a biofilm or mass of microscopic organisms that develop on surfaces inside the mouth. It looks like a sticky colorless deposit at first, however, with time it usually becomes dark colored or light yellow. It is generally found between the teeth, on. Dental Plaque: What are the Causes, Symptoms and Treatments? Throughout the day, the surface of your teeth will become covered in a sticky, colourless layer of protein known as dental plaque. Often invisible to the naked eye, plaque occurs naturally and, if left untreated, can contribute to oral health problems

Bacterial plaque, also known as biofilm, is a white substance you try to get rid of through your rigorous at-home oral care routine and dental checkups. But even with a top-notch routine, you may still have questions about how plaque can cause tooth decay and gum disease Causes of Plaque and Tartar. Negligent or improper oral hygiene leads to the accumulation of food debris in the mouth, which ultimately paves the way for plaque and tartar formation, among other dental problems. Your mouth is naturally populated with several strains of bacteria, both good and bad. These microorganisms feed on the sugars and. Oral health can give you severe pain and a lot of expenses if not taken regular care. Dental plaque, tartar, cavity, tooth decay, bad odor are some of the results of neglecting oral care. At first creation of biofilm leads to plaque formation, after 24 hours it builds up to soft, gooey substance that sticks to the teeth

Do you know how plaque causes decay? | Dr

Causes. Cavities are caused by tooth decay — a process that occurs over time. Here's how tooth decay develops: Plaque forms. Dental plaque is a clear sticky film that coats your teeth. It's due to eating a lot of sugars and starches and not cleaning your teeth well. When sugars and starches aren't cleaned off your teeth, bacteria quickly. Plaque is a colourless, sticky layer of bacteria, which develops on the teeth. It will be noticed more if teeth have not been brushed and will cause them to feel fuzzy. It is made up of many germs that reside in the mouth and get stuck to teeth. There are different types of plaque, some of which cause gum disease while others cause tooth decay Dental Plaque - Its Causes, Symptoms, And Treatments Dental emergencies or dental problems involve various diseases and complications. They come with multiple diseases and are indeed disturbing. One such type of disease caused by a dental emergency is Dental Plaque. In this disease, a mass of bacteria grows within the surface of the mouth Furthermore, what causes dental plaque? Plaque develops when foods that contain carbohydrates (sugars and starches), such as milk, soft drinks, raisins, cakes, or candy, are frequently left on the teeth. Bacteria that live in the mouth thrive on these foods and produce acids. Over a period of time, these acids destroy tooth enamel, resulting in.

What causes plaque, and why is plaque harmful? When plaque builds up, high-carbohydrate foods (starch and sugar) such as milk, soft drinks, honey, sugar, raisins, ice cream, and whole grains such as chips, cookies, or candy accumulate the teeth producing bacteria in the mouth. Over time, these acids destroy tooth enamel and cause tooth decay. Dental plaque coloration after applying the solution, appreciation of dental plaque index a b Fig. 5. Coloration of dental plaque a. vestibular part b. lingual part After finishing professional cleaning and double check of dental plaque presence Fig. 6. After the treatment Patient education for a correct cleaning and maintaining of oral hygiene. Causes of Plaque on Your Teeth. Dental plaque is that filmy, sticky substance that forms on the surface of your teeth after you eat. It grows when the naturally occurring bacteria in your mouth mix with different sugars and starches from unhealthy foods. If you don't get rid of plaque right away, it hardens and turns into tartar; this can. What causes plaque? So, we know what plaque is. But what actually causes it? Well, plaque is created when the bacteria in your mouth are exposed to sugary or starchy foods. These kinds of foods can include fruit juices, milk, sugary soft drinks, bread, pasta, fruit and more

Reasons to do a gingival flap surgery | Intelligent DentalDental – Ethnic Health Court

Dental Plaque: Causes, Symptoms, Removal, Preventio

Causes of Plaque . Plaque consists of cholesterol, fat, calcium, fibrin, and cellular waste products. Its formation involves a complex process in which waxy cholesterol adheres to the arterial walls, causing them to thicken, harden, and narrow. This eventually leads to atherosclerosis Plaque can begin to cause tooth decay before it even becomes tartar. Once it does become tartar, the situation is harder to manage. Plaque traps bacteria and acids in its sticky layer, and tartar hardens bacteria to the teeth, allowing them to serve out their nefarious agenda without interruption Dental plaque is a buildup of bacteria that forms on the teeth and under the gums. Plaque that builds up on your teeth shouldn't be underestimated, as it creates acids that can cause tooth decay and gum disease. Regular brushing and flossing are usually enough to get rid of them, but if not kept under control, plaque can harden and turn into. The acid causes demineralization of the tooth resulting in dental caries. Gingivitis does NOT occur following any specific pathogen or pathogens being in the dental biofilm/plaque. The more dental plaque that accumulates on the teeth the more likely a patient will develop gingivitis

Dental Plaque and Tartar: Causes, Prevention, and Remova

The Causes of Plaque Buildup. A little plaque is always present on your teeth — even if you're the most fastidious brusher around. But it will become problematic to your dental health if you're eating a lot of sugary or starchy foods, such as sodas, candy, cake or sticky fruits like raisins Recent studies have described bacterial complexes that are present in subgingival plaque and these studies are likely to help in current understanding of the complex ecology observed in dental plaque biofilm (Socransky, Haffajee et al. 1998). Bacterial interactions play important roles in species survival

Dental tartar, otherwise known as dental calculus, is a yellow or brown colored buildup that forms above and below the gum line when dental plaque hardens on the teeth. It is porous and rough and can lead to gum diseases and receding gums. It should be removed with specialized tools at the dental office How plaque causes tooth decay. Your mouth is full of bacteria that form a film over the teeth called dental plaque. When you consume food and drink high in carbohydrates - particularly sugary foods and drinks - the bacteria in plaque turn the carbohydrates into energy they need, producing acid at the same time Dental plaque is the material that adheres to the teeth and consists of bacterial cells (mainly S. mutans and S. sanguis), salivary polymers, and bacterial extracellular products. Key Terms. cavity: A soft area in a decayed tooth. plaque: a clearing in a bacterial lawn caused by a viru What causes tartar? Tartar or plaque is a combination of bacteria and an extracellular matrix that adheres to the outer surface of the tooth. The development of plaque starts with the attachment.

Plaque On Teeth - Causes And Treatmen

Causes of Dental Plaque. Everyone produces plaque, but not all plaque causes gum disease. A combination of electrostatic forces and van der Waals forces cause plaque to adhere (stick) to the tooth. If plaque is not removed it can lead to more painful and serious dental conditions: Tooth decay - when plaque mixes with the sugar in the mouth (from food and drink), it creates acid. The acid causes decay or 'holes' in the teeth. Decay can removed from the tooth, and treated with a filling if it is detected in time by the dentist Periodontal diseases, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, are the main cause of tooth loss, affecting over 80% of the population above the age of 30. Poor oral hygiene and dental plaque bacteria are considered as the main causes of gum disease. Several other factors also contribute in developing periodontal diseases Fighting plaque is a life-long part of good dental hygiene. Plaque can also lead to the development of cavities, which further weaken your teeth. Plaque can begin forming on teeth four to 12 hours after brushing, which is why it is so important to brush at least twice a day and floss daily. Brushing teeth, although necessary, is not enough The biggest culprit is dental plaque.Plaque is a sticky layer that forms on your teeth when the bacteria in your mouth feast upon the sugars of food or drinks that you've recently consumed

# 53 Human teeth and dental decay | Biology Notes forWhat's really causing gum recession? Most Common reasons

Causes. In most cases, the development of periodontitis starts with plaque — a sticky film composed mainly of bacteria. If left untreated, here's how plaque can eventually advance to periodontitis: Plaque forms on your teeth when starches and sugars in food interact with bacteria normally found in your mouth. Brushing your teeth twice a day. The dentist, periodontist, or dental hygienist removes the plaque . through a deep-cleaning method called scaling and root planing. Scaling means scraping off the tartar from above and below the . gum line. Root planing gets rid of rough spots on the tooth root where the germs gather, and helps remove bacteria that contribute to the disease Dental plaque is a sticky, colorless film of bacteria that form on your teeth every day. Plaque's bacteria decompose carbohydrates and produce toxins that irritate gums, causing gingivitis. Plaque can easily be removed by tooth brushing and flossing. If plaque is left on tooth surfaces, it will harden into tartar, which can't be removed by. When this happens, the acids in plaque start to eat away at the healthy minerals in the tooth enamel. This causes the enamel to wear down and become pitted. Over time, the pits in the enamel.

Tooth Plaque Causes, Prevention, and Treatment

Dental plaque is the community of microorganisms found on a tooth surface as a biofilm, embedded in a matrix of polymers of host and bacterial origin [1, 2].Of clinical relevance is the fact that biofilms are less susceptible to antimicrobial agents, while microbial communities can display enhanced pathogenicity (pathogenic synergism) [].The structure of the plaque biofilm might restrict the. PRIMARY CAUSES OF GINGIVAL RECESSION. 1) Low-level and long-lasting trauma. It is also known as chronic trauma, especially due to inappropriate daily brushing, and it physically wounds gingival tissues (Figs 2, 3 , 6 ).Traumatically using the tooth brush as well as other oral hygiene agents over delicate gingival margins on a daily basis might gradually and slowly lead to gingival recession. Dental Calculus (also known as dental tartar) is a yellowish or brown layer of mineral deposits on the teeth surface created by hardened dental plaque. Tartar control is important for your oral health because, besides the cosmetic problem, it promotes further accumulation of dental plaque, and causes inflammation of gums, gum recession and gum. This plaque irritates the gum around the tooth, and gums can become swollen and puffy as your body tries to fight the bacteria. These conditions often cause the gums to bleed, too - especially when aggravated further by a toothbrush or dental floss

Dental Plaque: Causes, Prevention & Treatmen

Dental plaque is substance that forms on the teeth within a few hours after a meal. This gummy substance begins its transformation to tartar within 24 hours after a meal Plaque is the accumulation of bacteria, dead cells, and debris on your teeth. It is invisible to the eye, but is harmful to the teeth as it interacts with certain foods, releasing an acid which causes tooth decay A new toothbrush removes more plaque. Drink water that contains added fluoride or ask your dentist about using a fluoride mouth rinse to prevent tooth decay. Ask your dentist about using an anti-plaque or anti-gingivitis mouth rinse to control plaque or prevent gum disease. Use dental floss to clean between your teeth at least once a day

Causes of caries

How does bacterial plaque develop? Causes & Risk Factor

Ignoring this plaque can eventually lead to the development of an abscess or bacterial infection inside the teeth, and when it is undisturbed, it can cause oral problems and gingivitis. Detering the formation of cavities or an abscess is simple, but it starts with good oral health practices on a daily basis Tooth plaque ultimately leads to many oral health issues such as cavities, gum disease, halitosis, tooth loss, and more. Here are a few causes of tooth plaque you might want to avoid. Junk Foods and Drinks. Many of us are aware that junk foods such as soda and candy are bad for us in more ways than one. However, they're one of the worst.

Dental plaque - Wikipedi

Dental Plaque and Tartar, Causes, Prevention, and Removal. How to Make It Hard for Tartar to Form in Your Teeth. How to Protect Your Teeth from Dental Plagues and Tartar . Plague is your smile's biggest enemy. It is a sticky bacteria film that covers your teeth. Once you eat food, the bacteria release acids that destroy your enamel Unattended plaque can lead to cavities, gingivitis (gum disease), and tooth loss. Regular dental checkups remove plaque and protect teeth. Why do people fear plaque formation? It is the bacteria in plaque that produce acids after we eat or drink - especially sugary, milky products Neglecting your dental and oral health, diet, personal habits and tobacco are the main causes of mouth, tooth, and gum problems. Cavities and Gum Disease. Bacteria constantly multiply on your teeth. When bacteria build up, they form a sticky, colorless substance called plaque. The main cause of decay and gum disease is plaque Chapter 5 Dental plaque. Dental plaque is a general term for the complex microbial community that develops on the tooth surface, embedded in a matrix of polymers of bacterial and salivary origin. Plaque that becomes calcified is referred to as calculus or tartar

Dental Plaque and Tartar Causes - Deadline Essa

This calcified plaque can cause discoloration and staining of teeth. Also, if tartar forms along the gum line, it can irritate gums and even cause some more serious dental problems, such as gingivitis and gum disease Dental plaque is commonly known as the primary cause of dental caries and other oral infections. Rightly so, as despite the ever increasing knowledge in oral health care, the average adult in the United States has between 10 and 17 decayed, missing or filled permanent teeth [4] Dental Plaque. Dental plaque is an almost invisible film of bacteria that accumulates on our teeth and gums (especially in the spaces between the teeth and along the gum line). If dental plaque is not removed regularly from teeth, it can cause tooth decay and dental cavities (caries) or periodontal problems (such as gingivitis and periodontitis) Dental Calculus (or dental tartar) is a hard layer of mineral deposits created on the teeth by hardened dental plaque. It causes inflammation of the gums, gum recession and gum disease. Read more

What is Dental Plaque? Causes, Types, & Mor

Plaque causes irritation of the gums around the teeth leading to inflammation of the gums (gingivitis). Continued plaque accumulation contributes to gum recession, bone loss, and tooth loss. What causes Plaque: Tooth-decaying oral bacteria utilize sugars (glucose, sucrose, fructose, lactose or cooked starches) as their food source DENTAL PLAQUE Meaning. Plaque is the sticky film containing bacteria that grows on the surface of the teeth. Plaque starts to appear when teeth are not brushed making the teeth feel fuzzy to the tongue. 1 Frequent consumption of foods rich in carbohydrates and sugars such as soft drinks, raisins, cakes, or candy causes them to adhere on to the surface of the teeth, leading to the development. A healthy mouth contains a different selection or a different proportion of bacteria in its plaque than an unhealthy mouth. People on a high-sugar diet have a higher number of acid-producing and acid-tolerant bacteria in their plaque, such as Streptococcus mutans and species of Lactobacillus. Streptococcus mutans is the main cause of tooth decay Without treatment, the plaque and bacteria will then enter the pulp. At this stage, your nerves will be exposed to the bacteria, making your tooth very painful. The bacteria can also infect the tissue within the pulp, causing a dental abscess. Tooth decay typically occurs in the teeth at the back of your mouth, known as the molars and premolars What is Tooth Plaque? It is an adhesive biofilm that grows on the teeth because of the bacteria naturally living in the mouth. Just a hint here, the sugar derived from sweet things, junk food and the more healthy fruit and veg that are full of carbs creating the perfect breeding ground to produce acid that feeds on your tooth enamel and gums

Cavities/tooth decay - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clini

Plaque—Gingival Pocket Middle and Right: Weaken ing of the epithelial attachment to the tooth permits apical migration of gram-positive plaque bacteria in a thin layer between the tooth and the junctional epithelium (thin ar-row). Gram-negative bacteria col-onize subsequently, and a gingival pocket forms (Fig.150). Histology courtesy G. Cimason Ways to remove dental plaque. Plaque development is not a minor issue and can lead to serious infections and gum disease. To start with, one must know that basic care starts from home

10 Tips To Help Prevent And Treat Dental Disease In DogsSmoking and oral health | Dr

Dental decay is due to the irreversible solubilization of tooth mineral by acid produced by certain bacteria that adhere to the tooth surface in bacterial communities known as dental plaque. Bacteria Responsible : Streptococcus mutans is the main cause of dental decay. Various lactobacilli are associated with progression of the lesion A tongue coating is similar to dental plaque and can cause bad breath. The coating appears on the top surface of the tongue. It's usually towards the back of the mouth, near the throat. It looks like a pale, white coating. Tongue coating can be a mixture of sulfur compounds and mucus. It can also include food particles, coffee or tea, and. Below are some of the common causes of tartar buildup that you should know. Tartar can be located at the crown of the teeth or it can cover the gum line making it difficult to clean the plaque beneath it. If the plaque builds up excessively it also turns into tartar, linking itself with the enamel in a firm bond Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth. It appears as a white or pale yellow slime layer, that is commonly found between the teeth and along the cervical margins. Dental plaques: Do's and Do not's. Plaque is a sticky layer of material containing bacteria that accumulates on teeth Causes of Calculus Bridge. The following could be the causes: Unhealthy Diet. Precipitation of Minerals present in Plaque. No Care of Teeth. Smoking. Tea or Coffee. Too much consumption of Sweets or Chocolates etc. If proper treatment is not given at the early stages, it continues growing and end up with tooth removal Simply put, dental plaque is a sticky film of bacteria that is constantly forming on our teeth. This bacteria feeds off sugars from foods left on teeth (due to improper brushing), producing acids in the process. These acids attack tooth enamel and can cause it to break down. Since many things we eat and drink during the day contain some sort of.

  • أسماء أعضاء مجلس النواب المصري 2020.
  • ترجمة من العربي إلى الأمريكي.
  • إعفاء رسوم نقل الكفالة.
  • الرقم 23 في القرآن.
  • الفيل المتفجر.
  • أصل عائلات بلقاس.
  • شلالات انطاليا دودان.
  • ثمرة القيقب.
  • قانون القوة المحصلة المؤثرة.
  • الزبرجد الخام.
  • قبيلة الحلفاوين.
  • اهو ده اللي صار الحلقة 4.
  • كيف أتأمل.
  • أسباب ألم البطن في الليل.
  • فحم الكوك في مصر.
  • مفهوم الحياد الإيجابي.
  • جدول تمرين ظهر.
  • زراعة الهيل في لحج.
  • أضلاع الإنسان.
  • أقوى ذاكرة في العالم.
  • شفه شفه شفه شاطح.
  • تسجيل دخول فيسبوك.
  • كتابة ع الاكواب.
  • Sarcoidosis.
  • Black Butler تقرير.
  • فيلم توايلايت الجزء الثالث السينما للجميع.
  • ولاية البيض في الخريطة.
  • عدد سكان إربد ٢٠٢٠.
  • وفاة الفنانة إيمان.
  • فيلم Twilight الجزء الثاني.
  • عمل توقيع إلكتروني أون لاين.
  • تربية الأبقار الحلوب.
  • تخصصات جامعة بنسلفانيا.
  • تمرين حبس البول وسرعة القذف.
  • علاج الالتصاقات بعد عملية الغضروف.
  • ماشكل منقار البط.
  • قلب شاشة الكمبيوتر ويندوز 7.
  • هل المشي مفيد لمرضى الانزلاق الغضروفي.
  • متلازمة ادمز أوليفر.
  • طريقة مسح الباركود في الاندرويد.
  • حساب التغذية الوريدية.